Learn more about Friends of the NewsHour. There’s an ongoing battle of words to describe Jan 6, 2021. The Central Intelligence Agency’s use of “enhanced interrogation techniques” was “not an effective means of acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees,” a Senate report claims. In a statement released Tuesday, CIA Director John Brennan said that, though the CIA found some common ground with the report’s findings, the agency did not agree on several points. The psychologist credited with devising the C.I.A. Interrogation techniques such as slaps and “wallings” (slamming detainees against a wall) were used in combination, frequently concurrent with sleep deprivation and nudity. Thank you. Justin Scuiletti. Subscribe to ‘Here's the Deal,’ our politics newsletter. Anyone who is considered a threat to our Watch The report on the CIA’s use of interrogation, released by the Senate Intelligence Committee Tuesday, went into detail about several of the methods used. Sadly, even defenders of these valuable procedures have allowed themselves to … Accuracy was also called into question concerning the interrogations of Ramzi bin al-Shibh, an associate of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: “Much of [bin al-Shibh’s] statements on the 11 September attacks have been speculative, and many of the details could be found in media accounts of the attacks that appeared before he was detained. Khan, after 56 hours of standing sleep deprivation, could barely enunciate and was “visibly shaken by his hallucinations depicting dogs mauling and killing his sons and family.”. (page 313). Former CIA directors George Tenet, Porter Goss and Michael Hayden and former CIA Deputy Directors John McLaughlin, Albert Calland and Stephen Kappes — writing in The Wall Street Journal — said that the program led to the capture of senior al Qaida operatives, disrupted several terrorist plots and added to the overall knowledge of how al Qaida operates. Enhanced interrogations are illegal, or at least they are morally abhorrent. 11 months ago. Where Hayden stated that waterboarding was successful in retrieving information from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, records state that CIA personnel even believed that the use of waterboarding on KSM was “ineffective” claiming that one of his interrogators suggested that non-confrontational approaches had been much more successful. More generally, the effectiveness of enhanced interrogations misses the point. The technique used by the Armed Forces or any other government branch in the U.S. has proven to be effective in getting people to talk much sooner. 12 months ago. Please check your inbox to confirm. Results suggested the potential usefulness of this method to examine the effectiveness of using pain for information retrieval in a scenario similar to interrogation: Analyses revealed that participants were more likely to reveal false information when exposed to the cold pressor test, and this effect became more pronounced as manipulated water temperatures became colder (from 10 degrees … The removal of these senior al Qaeda operatives saved thousands of lives because it ended their plotting. The psychologist credited with devising the C.I.A. We then found Gunawan, and information from him resulted in the takedown of a 17-member Southeast Asian cell that Gunawan had recruited for a “second wave,” 9/11-style attack on the U.S. West Coast, in all likelihood using aircraft again to attack buildings. There is also a clear difference of opinion on the effectiveness of enhanced interrogation. Senate Intelligence Committee Report on CIA Interrogation, Left: Schneiderman looks at the new research being conducted into the science of interrogation. Yes, Minister: Massive power outage leaves Pakistan in the dark, Indonesian divers find parts of plane wreckage in Java Sea, 2nd GOP senator now urges Trump to resign over Capitol riot, Anti-abortion faith leaders support use of COVID-19 vaccines, Trump pressured Georgia to ‘find the fraud’ in earlier call, Queen Elizabeth II and husband receive COVID-19 vaccinations. Nov 27 (page 208). The report’s first finding agreed – the “CIA’s use of its enhanced interrogation techniques was not an effective means of acquiring intelligence or … KSM was waterboarded by CIA interrogators in what the report describes as a "series of near drownings". Even if enhanced interrogation were effective, defenders of the program are unable to satisfy the lawful parameters of military necessity because the program relied on techniques, such as waterboarding, that clearly violate the laws of war. No amount of efficacy can justify taking these illegal and immoral actions. 929 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[915 40]/Info 914 0 R/Length 86/Prev 747618/Root 916 0 R/Size 955/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Had that attack occurred, the nightmare of 9/11 would have been repeated. The CIA repeatedly used a subsection of a 2004 CIA Inspector General report titled “Effectiveness” as evidence that enhanced interrogation methods were effective. %PDF-1.6 %���� Here’s an example of how the interrogation program actually worked to disrupt terrorist plotting. For examples, the report returns to the cases of Zubaydah and KSM. The Effectiveness Of Harsh Interrogation Techniques. List of Pros of Enhanced Interrogation Techniques. The on-site medical officer told the inspector general that, after three or four days, it became apparent that the waterboard was ineffective, and that KSM “hated it but knew he could manage.” KSM interrogator [redacted] told the inspector general that KSM had “beat the system,” and assessed two months after the discontinuation of the waterboard that KSM responded to “creature comforts and sense of importance” and not to “confrontational” approaches. The SSCI report is the most comprehensive review ever conducted of the CIA Detention and Interrogation Program and is significant as it abolishes … Techniques that have proven to be effective, compared to “enhanced techniques”, are learning about the detainees’ motivation, learning about their culture and gaining their trust. R.M. CIA personnel — including members of KSM’s interrogation team — believed that the waterboard interrogation technique was ineffective on KSM. Claims about effectiveness of enhanced interrogations are … Hundreds, if not thousands, of lives may have been spared as a result. The U.S. military used the All Rights Reserved. On the substantive level, there is the question of the efficacy of enhanced interrogation techniques. His information on individuals is non specific; he has given us nothing on the Saudi hijackers or others who played a role… The overall quality of his reporting has steadily declined since 2003.” (page 80), Several have disputed the Senate Intelligence Committee’s claims that the techniques were ineffective. KSM pointed to Hambali’s brother Rusman Gunawan. 915 0 obj <> endobj Dan Rather on the Capitol attack, the state of our nation and ‘What Unites Us’, Read WATCH: Trump directs protesters to march to the U.S. Capitol ahead of count of Electoral College votes, Watch Further, as previously described, during at least one waterboard session, Abu Zubaydah “became completely unresponsive, with bubbles rising through his open, full mouth.” (page 423), The report also called into question the agency’s collection of “unique” information from detainees using these interrogation methods. In 1963, the Central Intelligence Agency compiled the historical understanding of such non-invasive interrogation techniques into a how-to guide titled KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation, informally known as the KUBARK manual. In the few instances where his reporting was unique and plausible, we cannot verify or refute the information… he has been sketchy on some aspects of the 9/11 plot, perhaps in order to downplay his role in the plot. Capitol riot: The ‘third world’ trope offends, misreads history, By Victoria Milko, Edna Tarigan, Associated Press, By Darlene Superville, Alan Fram, Mary Clare Jalonick, Associated Press. © 1996 - 2021 NewsHour Productions LLC. Many notable thinkers are, and will continue to … ... D.C., many national-security hawks are quietly reevaluating their position on the use of the so-called "enhanced interrogation … Here’s why it matters, Dan Rather on the Capitol attack, the state of our nation and ‘What Unites Us’, Here’s how it feels when COVID-19 symptoms last for months, WATCH: Trump directs protesters to march to the U.S. Capitol ahead of count of Electoral College votes, Capitol riot: The ‘third world’ trope offends, misreads history, Oaths questioned as Trump’s backers fight against loss, EXPLAINER: Can social media companies boot Trump? For Zubaydah, information allegedly gained from the enhanced techniques, including the identification of KSM as the mastermind of the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks, are instead attributed by the report to interrogations conducted before the use of the enhanced interrogation: According to CIA records, Abu Zubaydah provided information on “al-Qa’ida activities, plans, capabilities, and relationships,” in addition to information on “its leadership structure, including personalities, decision-making processes, training, and tactics.” This type of information was provided by Abu Zubaydah prior to, during, and after the use of the CIA’s enhanced interrogation techniques. The report draws from an April 12, 2007, CIA testimony by Michael Hayden — then-director of the CIA — to point out supposed inaccuracies in CIA claims of enhanced interrogation effectiveness by comparing statements from Hayden to CIA interrogation records. “The intelligence gained from the program was critical to our understanding of al Qaida and continues to inform our counterterrorism efforts to this day.”. They’re often used in the fight against terrorism. �$Ǥ ħ��;�-��[ĺ����_�mY���8��8sx����,��:�|jht��A]g��|*=n�0KQ�qb7�Ӷ�)r;��Hxl;��)vC�Q��-�/�:-'%�&J'lbҔ�f� �t�A��m6�h�X�Dž�-9�L��� zr��vjI�t�9�/� ��p�&����CCG�DG�������A�@�(��� �"҂a(R�����`����� ;���3��q � https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/enhanced-interrogation-techniques-ineffective, There’s an ongoing battle of words to describe Jan 6, 2021. Jan 09 Without using the interrogation program on KSM, they also claim, further al Qaida associates would not have been apprehended: A powerful example of the interrogation program’s importance is the information obtained from Abu Zubaydah, a senior al Qaeda operative, and from Khalid Sheikh Muhammed, known as KSM, the 9/11 mastermind. Ten interrogation techniques were verbally approved by Attorney General John Ashcroft on July 24, 2002: “the attention grasp, walling, the facial hold, the facial slap (insult slap), cramped confinement, wall standing, stress positions, sleep deprivation, use of diapers, and use of insects” with the verbal approval of waterboarding given two days later. New Research Suggests Enhanced Interrogation Not Effective. Perspectives on Enhanced Interrogation Techniques Congressional Research Service 2 This report discusses the CIA’s Detention and Interrogation (D&I) Program as portrayed in many official documents. The report even describes other, unconventional methods of interrogations, such as the holding of an “intellectually challenged” man who was taped crying to be used as leverage to “get a family member to provide information.”. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, pictured here after his capture in Pakistan in 2003, was mentioned several times in the Senate report on the ineffectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques on detainees. Jan 06 The CIA's use of its enhanced interrogation techniques was not an effective means of acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees. And that's important for people around the world to understand." Learn why enhanced interrogation techniques may be counterproductive, leading to misleading or false confessions. Jessen, one of the two contract psychologists who designed the CIA’s “enhanced interrogation techniques”, spent 10 days in the secret prison near Kabul, Afghanistan, in November 2002. Where did the enhanced interrogation techniques used at Guantánamo originate? The road to torture: How the CIA's "enhanced interrogation techniques” became legal after 9/11 The CIA’s torture techniques—10 in total—increased in severity as one went down the list We are convinced that both would not have talked absent the interrogation program. %%EOF h�bbd```b``>"k�d:�dU �LA$�Fi.$_-�L[��@�8#�t�� ��Om6#�Hhޠ �3�{ ` /a ? As we move forward, it’s important to not allow the torture issue to harm the reputation, and thus the effectiveness, of the C.I.A. President Bush stated "The United States of America does not torture. (page 213). He then divulged information about a second wave of attacks. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed refused to talk until the techniques were applied. h��Wmo�6�+����/�7�`�e �vC�5}Pc��H��nͿ�%Z��r�O�gޝx$���g�y%��[� ������V3!�B�0�2,�\� �� �18�\��O��I\�I�A. Three types of enhanced interrogation may make sources more likely to give false information, according to research: sleep deprivation, social isolation and intense interrogator pressure. 954 0 obj <>stream The article claims that without the use of the enhanced interrogation techniques on Abu Zubaydah and Ramzi bin al-Shibh, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed would never have been captured. A line must be drawn. The CIA, the report also alleges, purposely omitted the amount of relevant information gained from other methods outside those interrogations, giving the “false impression the CIA was acquiring unique information from the use of the techniques.”, An example given, purportedly drawing from CIA records, says that seven of 39 detainees that were known to have been subjected to the enhanced interrogation techniques from the agency but “produced no intelligence while in CIA custody.” The report stated that several detainees “provided significant accurate intelligence prior to, or without having been subjected to these techniques.”. In addition to the supposed ineffectiveness of waterboarding on Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the report also alleges that KSM gave inaccurate statements to interrogators because of the enhanced interrogation: The CIA repeatedly represented that KSM had “recanted little of the information” he had provided, and that KSM’s information was “generally accurate” and “consistent.” This assertion is not supported by CIA records. Records do not support CIA representations that the CIA initially used an “an open, non- threatening approach,” or that interrogations began with the “least coercive technique possible” and escalated to more coercive techniques only as necessary. Details of harsh interrogation techniques used by the CIA on suspected terrorists have been made public by the US Senate Intelligence Committee. • Enhanced interrogation destroys reputation of CIA, making Americans less safe. The Central Intelligence Agency’s use of “enhanced interrogation techniques” was “not an effective means of acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees,” a Senate report claims. The report described many of the interrogations that used these techniques as “brutal” and said there was no evidence of the agency first attempting alternative, “non-threatening” approaches before resorting to them: Beginning with the CIA’s first detainee, Abu Zubaydah, and continuing with numerous others, the CIA applied its enhanced interrogation techniques with significant repetition for days or weeks at a time. However, in his signing statement, Bush made clear that he reserved the right to waive this bill if he thought that was needed. Without revealing to KSM that Hambali had been captured, we asked him who might take over in the event that Hambali was no longer around. Enhanced interrogation techniques are effective and necessary for the procurement of valuable information. endstream endobj 916 0 obj <>/Metadata 70 0 R/Pages 913 0 R/StructTreeRoot 131 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 917 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 913 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 918 0 obj <>stream James Mitchell, a psychologist who served 22 years in the U.S. Air Force and who helped develop the CIA’s post-9/11 enhanced interrogation program, … Former US President George W … This is despite a recent US government report concluding that the use of such “enhanced interrogation” by the CIA was ineffective. Enhanced Interrogation Techniques in 2003 I’m going to go along with Dick Cheney who is a serious man interested in the safety of American citizens. h�b```�L�cB cb�EH�__:i��@x At no point during or after the use of the CIA’s enhanced interrogation techniques did Abu Zubaydah provide information on al-Qa’ida cells in the United States or operational plans for terrorist attacks against the United States. KSM, alone, was working on multiple plots when he was captured. KSM then led us to Riduan Isamuddin, aka Hambali, East Asia’s chief al Qaeda ally and the perpetrator of the 2002 Bali bombing in Indonesia—in which more than 200 people perished. Information from both Zubaydah and al-Shibh led us to KSM. Subscribe to Here’s the Deal, our politics newsletter for analysis you won’t find anywhere else. The opponents of enhanced interrogation will affix the term to American practices in order to discredit them. Ability to Quickly Acquire High Value Information. Justin Scuiletti The administration adopted the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 to address the multitude of incidents of detainee abuse. Here’s how it feels when COVID-19 symptoms last for months, Read According to Carle, enhanced interrogation techniques have similar effects. Justin Scuiletti is the digital video producer at PBS NewsHour. ENHANCED INTERROGATION IS EFFECTIVE "It cannot be contested that the techniques were effective at eliciting information. Further, a quantitative review of Abu Zubaydah’s intelligence reporting indicates that more intelligence reports were disseminated from Abu Zubaydah’s first two months of interrogation, before the use of the CIA’s enhanced interrogation techniques and when FBI special agents were directly participating, than were derived during the next two-month phase of interrogations, which included the non-stop use of the CIA’s enhanced interrogation techniques 24 hours a day for 17 days. “Our review indicates that interrogations of detainees on whom EITs were used did produce intelligence that helped thwart attack plans, capture terrorists, and save lives,” the statement said. Enhanced interrogation techniques or alternative set of procedures were terms adopted by the George W. Bush administration in the United States to describe interrogation methods used by US military intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to extract information from individuals captured in the “War on Terror” after the September 11 attacks in 2001. There is an intense debate surrounding this matter, but we can certainly say that respected members of the intelligence world insist that innocent Americans are today alive because we employed a set of coercive interrogation techniques. Information provided by Zubaydah through the interrogation program led to the capture in 2002 of KSM associate and post-9/11 plotter Ramzi Bin al-Shibh. endstream endobj startxref 1. (Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Report Executive Summary — Page 3), The use of sleep deprivation was described to involve the forcing of detainees to remain awake for upwards of 180 hours, all while standing or in stressful positions; sometimes shackled. Throughout the period during which KSM was subjected to the CIA’s enhanced interrogation techniques, KSM provided inaccurate information, much of which he would later acknowledge was fabricated and recant. Jan 10 Jan 10 “Not only are torture methods ineffective, they harm future effectiveness of any techniques because they harm US reputation. While government officials have argued that "enhanced interrogation techniques" are necessary to protect American citizens, the effectiveness … mFuA���w/��(����V���Յ ,*fh0X1�l�}�����kxu e���a �9�X@F1���݃�;��e`d0 ���� Enhanced interrogation techniques are techniques including walling, sleep deprivation, and waterboarding. At least five detainees were said to have experienced “disturbing hallucinations,” such as in the case of Arsala Khan in 2003, detailed on page 109 of the report. The […] Here’s why it matters, Watch 0 Waterboarding, the effect of which is described as inducing the sensation of drowning, was noted to have resulted instead in a “series of near drownings” when used on Abu Zubaydah and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, referred to here as “KSM”: According to CIA records, Abu Zubaydah’s waterboarding sessions “resulted in immediate fluid intake and involuntary leg, chest and arm spasms” and “hysterical pleas.” A medical officer who oversaw the interrogation of KSM stated that the waterboard technique had evolved beyond the “sensation of drowning” to what he described as a “series of near drownings.” Physical reactions to waterboarding did not necessarily end when the application of water was discontinued, as both Abu Zubaydah and KSM vomited after being subjected to the waterboard. Considering the nature of terrorists, most who are willing to die to serve their purpose, it is necessary to use unique and enhanced methods of getting information out of them. 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